New words – 27 May 2019

Andriy Onufriyenko / Moment / Getty

algocracy noun [U]
UK /ˌæl.ˈgɒk.rə.si/ US /ˌæl.ˈgɑː.krə.si/
a social system where people are governed and important decisions are made by computer algorithms

Robots could use vast amounts of data and an insidious knowledge of ways to manipulate human behaviour to effectively take over vast swathes of our lives in what would effectively become rule by algorithm, or an ‘algocracy’, the head of the City watchdog has warned.
[www.telegraph.co.uk, 11 July 2018]

cyberdefender noun [C]
UK /ˈsaɪ.bə.dɪfen.dəʳ/ US /ˈsaɪ.bɚ.dɪfen.dɚ/
a person who takes actions to protect a workplace from cybercrime (=crime or illegal activity that is done using the internet)

To build the best line of defense for your business, you need to take a communal approach to your cybersecurity strategy. Cybercrime is modern crime; there is no silver bullet. That’s why everybody within your company needs to be a cyberdefender.
[www.business.com, 1 November 2018]

Silicon Gorge noun [U]
UK /ˌsɪl.ɪ.kən.ˈgɔːdʒ/ US /ˌsɪl.ɪ.kən.ˈgɔːrdʒ/
a region in the southwest of England, specifically the area around the city of Bristol, where numerous tech companies are located

California may be able to boast of Silicon Valley, but in a (not so) quiet corner of southwest England lies … Silicon Gorge. Home to a growing number of exciting Bristol startups, this zone of commercial enterprise is fast becoming an aspirational hotspot for tech wizards and ambitious business leaders alike.
[www.ignite.digital, 15 September 2017]

About new words

New words – 20 May 2019

Tom Eversley / EyeEm / Getty

blood avocado noun [C]
UK /ˌblʌd.æv.əˈkɑː.dəʊ/ US /ˌblʌd.æv.əˈkɑː.doʊ/
an avocado that has been grown in an area controlled by a drug cartel (=a criminal group that produces illegal drugs) and that forces farmers to give that group a percentage of their income from growing the fruit

Avocado on toast might be off the menu. British and Irish restaurants are increasingly ditching them over concerns that Latin American imports are damaging the environment and funding Mexican drug cartels. Growers in Michoacán, west Mexico, have had their land seized by drug lords who are reported to be earning £150m a year by selling the so-called ‘blood avocados’ to British traders.
[The Guardian, 10 December 2018]

coffee name noun [C]
UK /ˈkɒf.i.neɪm/ US /ˈkɑː.fi.neɪm/
a name you give when ordering a coffee or in similar situations because it is easier to pronounce or spell than your real name

Ordering a morning coffee in a busy café can be difficult for anyone, but it becomes especially difficult when you have a name baristas seem unable to understand. Many people opt for a ‘coffee name’, usually a short Anglo-Saxon name like Jack or Jess, or an Anglo-Saxon name that sounds similar to their real non-Anglo-Saxon name. The idea of a coffee name is not unique to Australia, with social media posts of mangled names being shared by coffee lovers in the United States and United Kingdom.
[www.sbs.com.au, 12 January 2016]

chrono-nutrition noun [U]
UK /ˌkrɒn.ə.njuːˈtrɪʃ.ᵊn/ US /ˌkrɒn.ə.nuːˈtrɪʃ.ᵊn/
a way of eating based on the theory that when we eat, as well as what we eat, has an important influence on our health

Chrono-nutrition is an evolving and developing field of science which is beginning to show how our ancient biology is in conflict with our modern lifestyle. The mechanisms behind why time of eating may influence health are not entirely clear.
[Medical Research Council, mrc.ukri.org, 19 June 2018]

About new words

New words – 13 May 2019

courtneyk / E+ / Getty Images

generation scroll noun [U]
UK /ˌdʒen.əˈreɪ.ʃən.ˈskrəʊl/ US /ˌdʒen.əˈreɪ.ʃən.ˈskroʊl/
a way of referring to the generation of people who watch TV, read news, etc. mostly on a computer or mobile phone

This 25th annual analysis of media habits, based on a survey of 2,000 young people, says this is now ‘generation scroll’ – in which most viewing is through mobile internet devices, whether a phone, laptop or tablet computer. Only 10% now get ‘almost all’ their TV programmes through a TV screen.
[www.bbc.co.uk/news, 30 January 2019]

textavism noun [U]
/ˈtekst.ə.vɪ.zᵊm/
the use of text messages to try to persuade people to act in a way that will achieve a particular result, usually a political or social one

In the past year, text activism, or textavism, has consumed nearly all of Butler’s limited spare time … It often involves sending text messages to voters in swing states. ‘We try to apply pressure where we can do the most good’, Butler said. Recently, in the course of twenty-four hours, texters from MoveOn, where Butler volunteers, sent more than two million messages urging registered Democrats to vote in November.
[www.newyorker.com, 5 November 2018]

sadfishing noun [U]
/ˈsæd.fɪʃ.ɪŋ/
the practice of writing about one’s unhappiness or emotional problems on social media, especially in a vague way, in order to attract attention and sympathetic responses

You’ll have seen sadfishing happening on Facebook. Any time someone puts ‘I’m just so done with all this’ as their Facebook status without any explanation and then replies to anyone who asks a follow question with ‘I’ll PM you’: that’s sadfishing. If you’re a supermodel and influencer from the Hollywood Hills then sadfishing will make you money in #sponcon.
[www.metro.co.uk, 21 January 2019]

About new words

New words – 6 May 2019

Caiaimage / Paul Bradbury / Caiaimage / Getty

FIRE noun [U]
UK /ˈfaɪəʳ/ US /faɪr/
abbreviation for financial independence, retire early: a way of life that involves working hard and saving as much money as possible during your 20s and 30s in order to be able to retire when you are in your 40s

The ‘retire early’ part of this movement can be something of a misnomer. Many FIRE devotees don’t plan to spend 50 years playing bridge or taking leisure cruises. Instead, the focus is on financial independence: the aim is to save enough of a nest-egg, and live simply enough, so that the ensuing decades can be spent doing something other than chasing payrises and promotions at a corporate job, or worrying about owing the bank a large mortgage.
[www.bbc.co.uk, 2 November 2018]

disloyalty bonus noun [C]
UK /ˌdɪsˈlɔɪ.əl.ti.bəʊ.nəs/ US /ˌdɪsˈlɔɪ.əl.ti.boʊ.nəs/
a salary increase gained through changing to a new job rather than staying in your old one, where salaries for existing workers tend not to increase at the same rate

Workers who choose to stay in their jobs rather than move are missing out on a ‘disloyalty bonus’, a new report suggests. The Resolution Foundation found pay growth has hit 10% for those who change jobs, while those who remain in their posts received a pay rise of just 2.5%.
[news.sky.com, 2 August 2018]

flexism noun [U]
/ˈflek.sɪ.zəm/
discrimination against someone who has flexible working hours

“What I’m really trying to do with the term ‘flexism’ is take out the sexism part of flexibility. It’s not about being discriminated for working flexibly because you’re a woman or a mom. It’s about being discriminated for working flexibly full-stop. Until we make flexibility available to everyone for any reason, we’re going to continue to see flexism in the workforce.”
[www.officespacesoftware.com, 22 June 2018]

About new words

New words – 29 April 2019

jacoblund / iStock / Getty Images Plus

HIIS noun [U]
/hɪs/
abbreviation for high-intensity interval skipping: physical training that consists of short periods of intense skipping with short periods of rest in between

Forget HIIT, HIIS … is likely to become a big fitness trend in 2019. The exercise, involving short, sharp bursts of skipping, is one of the many ways that the Victoria’s Secret Angels keep in shape, as you can burn up to 1200 calories in a session.
[www.harpersbazaar.com, 14 December 2018]

fitness snacking noun [U]
/ˈfɪt.nəs.snæk.ɪŋ/
keeping fit by doing very short periods of physical activity regularly

British celebrity personal trainer Matt Roberts recently told The Telegraph that ongoing spurts of physical activity can help prevent illnesses associated with sedentary lifestyles, like heart disease and diabetes. The fitness expert said that not enough people get the daily exercise they need, and ‘fitness snacking’ is an approach that helps folks incorporate physical activity in a manageable way.
[globalnews.ca, 1 October 2018]

immersive yoga noun [U]
UK /ɪˈmɜː.sɪv.ˈjəʊ.gə/ US /ɪˈmɝː.sɪv.ˈjoʊ.gə/
a type of yoga accompanied by relaxing sounds and images

The city’s immersive yoga trend feeds into a wider, global movement. New York’s Woom Centre, for example, offers classes complete with sound therapy, blindfolded segments, essential oils and a gulp of a “fresh elixir” shot, while Humming Puppy in Melbourne, Sydney and NYC pipes sound at supposedly healing frequencies into the studio.
[www.eventbrite.com, 20 June 2018]

About new words

New words – 22 April 2019

fahnurjingga / iStock / Getty Images Plus

shrobing noun [U]
UK /ˈʃrəʊ.bɪŋ/ US /ˈʃroʊ.bɪŋ/
wearing a coat around one’s shoulders (from the words shoulder and robing)

Be prepared to go hands-free: There’s no shoulder left to hang a handbag on, so it’s about going it alone with an iPhone and credit card and making the most of utility pockets. Shrobing also demands an assortment of plush polo necks to drive away the cold – the tighter the better to keep the neck looking elongated rather than swaddled.
[Vogue UK, 24 February 2017]

lampshading noun [U]
/ˈlæmp.ʃeɪdɪŋ/
wearing a baggy top or short dress with bare legs and sometimes boots

Ariana Grande has apparently resumed her role as resident fashion inspiration. The pop star … has reportedly brought her trend of lampshading to the masses. According to a report from Lyst, the year’s biggest fashion trend was oversized hoodies, and we all have Ariana to thank. The singer – who frequently coordinates her sweatshirts with knee-high boots – was the source of a 130% increase in searches for oversized hoodies.
[www.teenvogue.com, 27 December 2018]

jarfing noun [U]
UK /ˈdʒɑː.fɪŋ/ US /ˈdʒɑːr.fɪŋ/
wearing a jumper (UK) or sweater (US) wrapped around one’s neck and shoulders (from the words jumper and scarf)

The Sunday Times Style reckons that jarfing is heating up as a trend, and celebs and fashion people have been spotted wearing the look, so it’s officially a thing. … Does jarfing put your favourite jumper at risk of stretching out and being ruined forevermore? For sure. But isn’t that the fun of fashion – ignoring an item of clothing expressly made for the purpose of keeping your neck warm in favour of a trend that looks and feels ridiculous?
[Metro, 31 October 2018]

About new words

New words – 15 April 2019

Naila Ruechel / DigitalVision / GettyImages

vegetable butcher noun [C]
UK /ˈvedʒ.tə.bᵊl.ˌbʊtʃ.əʳ/ US /ˈvedʒ.tə.bᵊl.ˌbʊtʃ.ɚ/
a person who prepares vegetables in a shop

But these days butchery need not involve meat at all, as Harrods has unveiled a new “vegetable butcher” as part of its extended foodhall. … Just like regular butchers, so-called vegetable butchers stand behind glass counters, offer before-your-eyes precision chopping, and can concoct the perfect seasoning for every dish.
[www.telegraph.co.uk, 1 November 2018]

planetary health diet noun [U]
UK /ˌplæn.ɪ.tər.i.ˈhelθ.daɪ.ət/ US /ˌplæn.ɪ.ter.i.ˈhelθ.daɪ.ət/
a way of eating that aims to give everyone in the world enough food to eat without damaging the planet

A diet has been developed that promises to save lives, feed 10 billion people and all without causing catastrophic damage to the planet. Scientists have been trying to figure out how we are going to feed billions more people in the decades to come. Their answer – ‘the planetary health diet’ – does not completely banish meat and dairy. But it requires an enormous shift in what we pile onto our plates and turning to foods that we barely eat.
[www.bbc.co.uk/news, 17 January 2019]

LALS noun [abbr]
/læls/
abbreviation for low-alcohol, low-sugar, used to refer to a type of food or drink, or a way of eating, that contains little or no alcohol or sugar

Our tip for 2019? Watch out for the ‘No-groni’ – the LALS cousin of the Negroni (equal parts gin, campari and sweet vermouth), named ‘cocktail of the year’ by Petersham Nurseries in London. The No-groni contains the non-alcoholic versions of each spirit, and doesn’t contain a drop of the hangover.
[www.afr.com, 17 December 2018]

About new words

New words – 8 April 2019

s0ulsurfing – Jason Swain / Moment / GettyImages

nanogardening noun [U]
UK /ˈnæn.əʊ.ˌgɑː.dᵊn.ɪŋ/ US /ˈnæn.oʊ.ˌgɑːr.dᵊn.ɪŋ/
small-scale gardening, for example growing plants on a balcony or patio

Nanogardening: have you heard of it? It’s what many new to the hobby of gardening are engaging in these days. Gardening, but on a micro-scale. For those with only very small spaces, such as a balcony or kitchen countertop, in which to grow plants, nanogardening offers an accessible and relevant starting place for their enthusiasm for plant keeping.
[www.gardencentermag.com, 9 August 2018]

turf art noun [U]
UK /tɜːf.ˈɑːt/ US /tɝːf.ˈɑːrt/
a lawn or other large area of grass that has had a pattern or image of something mown into it

‘Turf art’, as the gardeners at Wisley call it, has been decorating the lawns there for the past six years, and it still remains today one of the only locations to practise such a skill. ‘The garden team started off by doing patterns in the lawns with our Honda rotary mowers instead of traditional straight lines,’ explains Welsey Olliffe, garden manager.
[www.telegraph.co.uk, 29 July 2018]

bee brick noun [C]
/ˈbiː.brɪk/
a brick, similar in size and shape to a house brick, with holes in it to allow bees to nest

‘Each bee brick contains cavities for solitary bees to lay their eggs,’ Waitrose Garden explains. ‘Each cavity is moulded part way into the brick ensuring bees cannot enter the building. Bees lay their eggs inside the holes and seal the entrance with mud or chewed up vegetation. The offspring emerge the following spring and begin the cycle again.’
[www.countryliving.com, 9 January 2019]

About new words

New words – 1 April 2019

Judith Haeusler / Cultura / Getty

waste bread noun [U]
/weɪst.ˈbred/
bread that is made partly with crumbs from leftover bread

On Thursday the first 100 loaves of “waste bread” …  will go on sale in 10 selected branches of Gail’s Bakery … Roughly one-third of each baked 750g loaf consists of leftover bread and the chain calculates that the 100 loaves being baked daily will save approximately 10kg of bread being wasted per day.
[www.theguardian.com, 5 October 2018]

sando noun [C]
UK /ˈsæn.dəʊ/ US /ˈsæn.doʊ/
a type of sandwich made with soft white bread, originating in Japan

“You have to use very fresh, soft, white supermarket bread that mimics the enriched white bread used traditionally in Japan. We know white bread isn’t healthy but here it works because something like sourdough has far too much flavour. Sandos are inverted sandwiches, in a way, because the point is to savour the filling and get almost no flavour from the bread.”
[www.telegraph.co.uk, 4 September 2018]

proats noun [pl]
UK /prəʊts/ US /proʊts/
oats (a type of grain often cooked and eaten for breakfast) with added protein

Protein oatmeal (AKA proats) is the nutritious breakfast that’s been missing from your mornings. Mixing protein and oats together makes for a tasty and, most importantly, filling breakfast, keeping hunger pangs at bay till lunch time. 
[us.myprotein.com, 30 November 2017]

About new words

New words – 25 March 2019

Carol Yepes / Moment / GettyImages

bakuchiol noun [U]
/bə.ˈkuːtʃɪ.əl/
an ingredient that occurs naturally in a plant and is used in skincare with the aim of preventing wrinkles

A plant extract suitable for vegans, bakuchiol offers the same anti-ageing and rejuvenating properties as retinol, but without the irritating side effects. Derived from the “babchi” plant, this natural ingredient is great to include in your skincare routine if you love the idea of retinol, but your skin can’t handle its potent properties.
[www.lookfantastic.com, 16 January 2019]

tweakment noun [C]
/ˈtwiːk.mənt/
a cosmetic procedure that is carried out by a trained specialist but does not involve surgery

“Women are no longer having to go under the knife for a more youthful look, and patients are increasingly opting for swift, non-surgical procedures,” advises Baiarda. “Lunchtime procedures with minimum recovery time are increasingly popular with young, professional women in their twenties, thirties and forties. At my clinic there has been a 300 per cent surge in lunchtime tweakments in the past year.”
[The Telegraph, 11 December 2018]

skip-care noun [U]
UK /ˈskɪp.keəʳ/ US /ˈskɪp.ker/
a skincare routine that uses a limited number of products, all of which have essential ingredients for healthy skin

Have you heard of skip-care? A trend amongst Korean millennials for finding multi-functional products which cover all bases for a more streamlined approach to skincare, it hails from Seoul (which, it has to be said, was the origin of the laborious 12-step skincare regimes that gave us this problem in the first place).
[Vogue UK, 6 November 2018]

About new words